Technological Change in England since 1700
With land and the production of crops, the resources within agriculture created wealth in the state and for individuals in England. It was estimated that over 90% of the country's population lived in rural areas where most of their jobs were connected with agricultural production such as making tools, caring for domestic animals and selling agricultural products. Urban life was a dream comes true for only a small portion of the world as agriculture was their main basis of economy.
An increase in population meant high demand on goods while productivity was very slow using these agricultural systems and techniques. The expansion on trading connections grew in number giving a lot of pressure and emphasis to produce more goods, faster and at lower prices. England was in a winning and pleasing position to take advances on technological possibilities to produce goods faster in volume but more cheaply by means of scientific standard and formulas.
The inventions of machines (between early 1700s to late 1800s) to better understand the process in production of goods was the first evidence of industrialisation occurring in mainland England. Concerned individuals seeing the need for greater output solved the problems of impotent production by inventing machines to accelerate the speed of work. The flying shuttle that made it possible for one person to weave wide bars of cloth by using a spring assembly of moving parts that sent the shuttle container across the power-driven apparatus. But, this invention overturned the balance between the weavers of cloth and spinners of yarn. It is the time when a carpenter named James Hargreaves invented a Spinning jenny in 1765. It was considered a perfect time for England because a spinning wheel that performs spontaneously and allows the spinner to keep up with the weavers to increase the slow process of spinning was discovered. Years later, another spinning machine was introduced by Richard Arkwright that aimed to increase the amount of cotton thread made by dragging up to water power source engine.
As the speed of spinning production increased, attention was focused on increasing the ability and quality of weaving with better and more efficient looms or apparatus. It meant improvement of devices for weaving thread or yarn into textiles that could range from very small manual frames to large free standing hand machines, to huge automatic mechanical devices. Its purpose was to hold bended threads under strain to help forward the interweaving of the woven threads. Then came the steam powered machines produced from coal, where textile industry become so large that it outgrew the possibilities of its power source. Machines powered by human and animal strengths became limited, not impressive and expensive that's why innovators turned to natural sources to power their machines resulting in how to use steam for power. One example is the "atmospheric engine" invented by Thomas Newcomen in 1705 that can power the transportation systems that help move goods and people.
The application of steam powered engines in weaving threads made it possible to expand the use of cloth and textile making machines to new areas in England after hand apparatus machinery began to disappear from commercial textile. The steps in increasing textile production were repeated all over again to other goods productions to satisfy absolutely unlimited demand. These factors came together resulting in more money, labour, new discoveries and mass production along with the other series of effects in the whole of England.
Original Authors: Phil Post
Edit Update Authors: M.A.Harris
Updated On: 23/07/2008