The Steam Engine
A rapid population outburst in England in the 18th century, twice as large as the number of inhabitants over the century, resulted in too much pressure to produce more manufactured goods. Together with the rise of England as an industrial nation was the higher demand for a quick expansion of cotton textiles leaving behind the manual procedure of cleaning and spinning of cotton into yarn or thread. The time consuming technique of picking up the yarn and bringing it to another household to be made into a finished product worked fairly in the entire economy of England except for the growing demand and pressure of group industry and could no longer satisfy the needs of the growing population.
Focusing on ways how to improve the speed of spinning cotton began when a continuing shortage of thread in the industry came during early 1700's. The first solution to the problem was solved by means of a simple, inexpensive and manual operated cotton-spinning jenny. Another spinning device, the water frame was introduced almost the same year, ten times faster than a manual process. This device required large, special kind of mills employing hundreds of workers in which cotton became much cheaper and could be bought by millions of social classes.
The increase of production and the potential ability of the cotton had not been satisfied by just spinning jenny and water frame devices, the real surpass came when steam engines were developed. Steam engines saw an outward and visible appearance of machinery that made use of the heat energy that could be found on steam, bringing it to mechanical work that could be used as a medium in operating pumps, motors, passenger ships, railroad engines and road trucks. In 1702, Thomas Savery published the "The Miners Friend" script that conveyed ideas, advantages and the manner of operation of how steam power engines could carry water out of a mine easier depending on the force of the boiler. Lately, mines were too deep that engineers were not competent of building boilers to sustain such high pressure that caused this devise into bad efficiency.
Succeeding inventions were reported such like Thomas Newcomen who invented the first to be put into practice "atmospheric steam pumping engine" in 1705 designed to have an entirely deep effect on the ability to mine from greater deepness while assisting the dawning industry that exist in some area of England. Improving upon Newcomen's engine design, Watts's steam engine was developed in 1765 by a Scottish engineer James Watt that could exhaust water more quickly compared to previously invented machines. Watts's invention made less extreme almost existing engines contributes an increase in fuel efficiency. Since it is flamed by coal, it could also turn a ray or beam and drive machinery to power spinning and weaving machines of cloth resulting to more spinning factories to be located elsewhere in England.
Steam powered engines inspired important changes in other industries such the use of steam-driven bellows that helped iron makers to make iron from charcoal into solid material. In 1780's, Henry Cort developed the small pooled-water fireplace that allowed big moulds of iron to be refined by hammering at a perfect welding heat to produce flattened, strong and durable forms of ready to use iron.
Revolutions in agriculture and technology aided England to become the first highly industrialised nation throughout the whole world.
Original Authors: Phil Post
Edit Update Authors: M.A.Harris
Updated On: 23/07/2008