Agricultural Revolution in England
Known as the "Transformation of the Agrarian Economy" in England this took place in the period 1500-1850, wherein science and industry grew, plants and animals were being studied and adopted by the native people. It includes the cultivation of soil, the growing and harvesting of crops, breeding and raising of animals and forestry.
From the 16th century onward, the required organic agriculture was gradually replaced by a new farming system that depends on the energy characterised data and information. For many years the agricultural status in England was only thought to have occurred because of the selective breeding of livestock, the discharging of property rights to land and the adoption of new systems to cropping due to a group of heroic individuals known as the "Great Men" having victory over preserving groups of awkward and unsophisticated individuals of the country.
Agricultural Revolution involves technological changes which brought about a large increase in agricultural productivity and net output supported by the rapid growth in population, increasing percentage on the working force and thereby helped drive the Industrial Revolution. Historians cited four key changes in agricultural practices in England evolving in recent decades.
Separation and Appropriation of land is the practice of converting or making land belonging equally to the people in England into private ownership under a law of ownership that gave owners the right to the crops but also meant that other people have also the right to incompletely use the land. It is also the division and privatisation of fences, grassy vegetation and other wastes which turned equal land into owned land. This practice differs from region to region affecting many places particularly in the more compact areas where pasturage are insufficient and farmers relied only on their harvest to support their needs and animals.
Operation by machinery is the use of mechanical tools to replace manual and animal labour into the use of power machinery to help a human operator in some tasks. Example, the steam powered tool used to cut woods reduced the amount of time needed to carry out various task improvements and resulting in increased productivity. A job or work that made use of hands is not an example of mechanisation.
Various crop rotations is the practice in England growing a series of crops of different type in the same space and subsequent series of seasons to avoid the build up of plant bacteria and pests often occur when one variety only is continuously cropped. To avoid serious decrease of soil nutrients crop rotation is practiced to balance the fertility requirement of various crops while it nourishes nitrogen with the use of green manure alternatively with cereals and other crops. Another component of crop rotation is the polyculture that uses multiple crops in the same space in imitation of diversity of natural ecosystems.
Own-choice animal breeding is the reproduction of certain genetically determined characteristics of animals or plants over the other, engaged also by some inhabitants of England. It was originally defined by Charles Darwin to consider the improvement of survival in the reproductive ability of living organisms. For this reason, historians argued that there is no such thing as revolution, but simply a rapid evolution of methods in spreading various types of plants and animals that led to a cutting edge increase in productivity.
Original Authors: Phil Post
Edit Update Authors: M.A.Harris
Updated On: 04/07/2008